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Click here to view the page that includes the map pool and which will be updated live with the score as the series progresses. Watch the action yourself from the live stream:. Recent forum posts. Th … Read More 22 hours ago. The Tripartite Pact stipulated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet Union, which attacked any Axis Power would be forced to go to war against all three. From late summer to early autumn, Italy conquered British Somaliland and made an incursion into British-held Egypt.

In October, Italy attacked Greece , but the attack was repulsed with heavy Italian casualties; the campaign ended within months with minor territorial changes. The Italian Navy also suffered significant defeats, with the Royal Navy putting three Italian battleships out of commission by means of a carrier attack at Taranto , and neutralising several more warships at the Battle of Cape Matapan. Italian defeats prompted Germany to deploy an expeditionary force to North Africa and at the end of March , Rommel 's Afrika Korps launched an offensive which drove back the Commonwealth forces.

By late March , Bulgaria and Yugoslavia signed the Tripartite Pact ; however, the Yugoslav government was overthrown two days later by pro-British nationalists. Germany responded with simultaneous invasions of both Yugoslavia and Greece , commencing on 6 April ; both nations were forced to surrender within the month. In the Middle East in May, Commonwealth forces quashed an uprising in Iraq which had been supported by German aircraft from bases within Vichy-controlled Syria.

With the Soviets wary of mounting tensions with Germany and the Japanese planning to take advantage of the European War by seizing resource-rich European possessions in Southeast Asia , the two powers signed the Soviet—Japanese Neutrality Pact in April Hitler believed that the United Kingdom's refusal to end the war was based on the hope that the United States and the Soviet Union would enter the war against Germany sooner or later.

The Soviets showed some interest but asked for concessions from Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Japan that Germany considered unacceptable. On 18 December , Hitler issued the directive to prepare for an invasion of the Soviet Union. They were joined shortly by Finland and Hungary.

Hitler's objectives were to eliminate the Soviet Union as a military power, exterminate Communism, generate Lebensraum "living space" [] by dispossessing the native population [] and guarantee access to the strategic resources needed to defeat Germany's remaining rivals.

Although the Red Army was preparing for strategic counter-offensives before the war, [] Operation Barbarossa forced the Soviet supreme command to adopt a strategic defence. During the summer, the Axis made significant gains into Soviet territory, inflicting immense losses in both personnel and materiel.

By mid-August, however, the German Army High Command decided to suspend the offensive of a considerably depleted Army Group Centre , and to divert the 2nd Panzer Group to reinforce troops advancing towards central Ukraine and Leningrad. The diversion of three quarters of the Axis troops and the majority of their air forces from France and the central Mediterranean to the Eastern Front [] prompted the United Kingdom to reconsider its grand strategy.

By October, Axis operational objectives in Ukraine and the Baltic region were achieved, with only the sieges of Leningrad [] and Sevastopol continuing. The blitzkrieg phase of the war in Europe had ended. By early December, freshly mobilised reserves [] allowed the Soviets to achieve numerical parity with Axis troops. In , the United States notified Japan that it would not be extending its trade treaty and American public opinion opposing Japanese expansionism led to a series of economic sanctions, the Export Control Acts , which banned U.

To increase pressure on China by blocking supply routes, and to better position Japanese forces in the event of a war with the Western powers, Japan invaded and occupied northern Indochina in September Chinese nationalist forces launched a large-scale counter-offensive in early In August, Chinese communists launched an offensive in Central China ; in retaliation, Japan instituted harsh measures in occupied areas to reduce human and material resources for the communists.

German successes in Europe encouraged Japan to increase pressure on European governments in Southeast Asia. The Dutch government agreed to provide Japan with some oil supplies from the Dutch East Indies , but negotiations for additional access to their resources ended in failure in June The United States, the United Kingdom, and other Western governments reacted to this move with a freeze on Japanese assets and a total oil embargo.

Since early the United States and Japan had been engaged in negotiations in an attempt to improve their strained relations and end the war in China. During these negotiations, Japan advanced a number of proposals which were dismissed by the Americans as inadequate. Frustrated at the lack of progress and feeling the pinch of the American—British—Dutch sanctions, Japan prepared for war.

On 20 November, a new government under Hideki Tojo presented an interim proposal as its final offer. It called for the end of American aid to China and for lifting the embargo on the supply of oil and other resources to Japan.

In exchange, Japan promised not to launch any attacks in Southeast Asia and to withdraw its forces from southern Indochina. Japan planned to seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching into the Central Pacific.

The Japanese would then be free to exploit the resources of Southeast Asia while exhausting the over-stretched Allies by fighting a defensive war. The Japanese invasion of Thailand led to Thailand's decision to ally itself with Japan and the other Japanese attacks led the United States , United Kingdom , China, Australia, and several other states to formally declare war on Japan, whereas the Soviet Union, being heavily involved in large-scale hostilities with European Axis countries, maintained its neutrality agreement with Japan.

On 1 January , the Allied Big Four [] —the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom and the United States—and 22 smaller or exiled governments issued the Declaration by United Nations , thereby affirming the Atlantic Charter , [] and agreeing not to sign a separate peace with the Axis powers.

During , Allied officials debated on the appropriate grand strategy to pursue. All agreed that defeating Germany was the primary objective. The Americans favoured a straightforward, large-scale attack on Germany through France. The Soviets were also demanding a second front. The British, on the other hand, argued that military operations should target peripheral areas to wear out German strength, leading to increasing demoralisation, and bolster resistance forces. Germany itself would be subject to a heavy bombing campaign.

An offensive against Germany would then be launched primarily by Allied armour without using large-scale armies. At the Casablanca Conference in early , the Allies reiterated the statements issued in the Declaration and demanded the unconditional surrender of their enemies. The British and Americans agreed to continue to press the initiative in the Mediterranean by invading Sicily to fully secure the Mediterranean supply routes.

By the end of April , Japan and its ally Thailand had almost fully conquered Burma , Malaya , the Dutch East Indies , Singapore , and Rabaul , inflicting severe losses on Allied troops and taking a large number of prisoners. In early May , Japan initiated operations to capture Port Moresby by amphibious assault and thus sever communications and supply lines between the United States and Australia.

The planned invasion was thwarted when an Allied task force, centred on two American fleet carriers, fought Japanese naval forces to a draw in the Battle of the Coral Sea. With its capacity for aggressive action greatly diminished as a result of the Midway battle, Japan chose to focus on a belated attempt to capture Port Moresby by an overland campaign in the Territory of Papua. Both plans started in July, but by mid-September, the Battle for Guadalcanal took priority for the Japanese, and troops in New Guinea were ordered to withdraw from the Port Moresby area to the northern part of the island , where they faced Australian and United States troops in the Battle of Buna—Gona.

By the start of , the Japanese were defeated on the island and withdrew their troops. The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in late , went disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May Despite considerable losses, in early Germany and its allies stopped a major Soviet offensive in central and southern Russia, keeping most territorial gains they had achieved during the previous year.

The Soviets decided to make their stand at Stalingrad on the Volga. By mid-November, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad in bitter street fighting. The Soviets began their second winter counter-offensive, starting with an encirclement of German forces at Stalingrad , [] and an assault on the Rzhev salient near Moscow , though the latter failed disastrously.

In mid-February, after the Soviet push had tapered off, the Germans launched another attack on Kharkov , creating a salient in their front line around the Soviet city of Kursk. Exploiting poor American naval command decisions, the German navy ravaged Allied shipping off the American Atlantic coast.

In August , the Allies succeeded in repelling a second attack against El Alamein [] and, at a high cost, managed to deliver desperately needed supplies to the besieged Malta. In June , the British and Americans began a strategic bombing campaign against Germany with a goal to disrupt the war economy, reduce morale, and " de-house " the civilian population.

After the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Allies initiated several operations against Japan in the Pacific. In the Soviet Union, both the Germans and the Soviets spent the spring and early summer of preparing for large offensives in central Russia. Within a week, German forces had exhausted themselves against the Soviets' deeply echeloned and well-constructed defences, [] and for the first time in the war, Hitler cancelled an operation before it had achieved tactical or operational success.

On 12 July , the Soviets launched their own counter-offensives , thereby dispelling any chance of German victory or even stalemate in the east. The Western Allies fought through several lines until reaching the main German defensive line in mid-November. German operations in the Atlantic also suffered. By May , as Allied counter-measures became increasingly effective , the resulting sizeable German submarine losses forced a temporary halt of the German Atlantic naval campaign.

From November , during the seven-week Battle of Changde , the Chinese forced Japan to fight a costly war of attrition, while awaiting Allied relief. On 27 January , Soviet troops launched a major offensive that expelled German forces from the Leningrad region , thereby ending the most lethal siege in history.

This delay slowed subsequent Soviet operations in the Baltic Sea region. The Allies had mixed success in mainland Asia. In March , the Japanese launched the first of two invasions, an operation against British positions in Assam, India , [] and soon besieged Commonwealth positions at Imphal and Kohima. After reassigning several Allied divisions from Italy, they also attacked southern France. Paris was liberated on 25 August by the local resistance assisted by the Free French Forces , both led by General Charles de Gaulle , [] and the Western Allies continued to push back German forces in western Europe during the latter part of the year.

An attempt to advance into northern Germany spearheaded by a major airborne operation in the Netherlands failed. In Italy, Allied advance also slowed due to the last major German defensive line. In northern Serbia , the Soviet Red Army , with limited support from Bulgarian forces, assisted the Partisans in a joint liberation of the capital city of Belgrade on 20 October.

A few days later, the Soviets launched a massive assault against German-occupied Hungary that lasted until the fall of Budapest in February In the Pacific, US forces continued to press back the Japanese perimeter. In mid-June , they began their offensive against the Mariana and Palau islands and decisively defeated Japanese forces in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. These defeats led to the resignation of the Japanese Prime Minister, Hideki Tojo , and provided the United States with air bases to launch intensive heavy bomber attacks on the Japanese home islands.

In late October, American forces invaded the Filipino island of Leyte ; soon after, Allied naval forces scored another large victory in the Battle of Leyte Gulf , one of the largest naval battles in history. On 16 December , Germany made a last attempt on the Western Front by using most of its remaining reserves to launch a massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes and along the French-German border to split the Western Allies, encircle large portions of Western Allied troops and capture their primary supply port at Antwerp to prompt a political settlement.

They agreed on the occupation of post-war Germany, and on when the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan. In two weeks, the offensive had been repulsed, the Soviets advanced to Vienna , and captured the city. American and Soviet forces met at the Elbe river on 25 April, leaving several unoccupied pockets in southern Germany and around Berlin. Soviet troops stormed and captured Berlin in late April.

On 30 April, the Reichstag was captured, signalling the military defeat of Nazi Germany, [] and the Berlin garrison surrendered on 2 May. Major changes in leadership occurred on both sides during this period. Benito Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on 28 April. Total and unconditional surrender in Europe was signed on 7 and 8 May , to be effective by the end of 8 May. In the Pacific theatre, American forces accompanied by the forces of the Philippine Commonwealth advanced in the Philippines , clearing Leyte by the end of April They landed on Luzon in January and recaptured Manila in March.

Fighting continued on Luzon, Mindanao , and other islands of the Philippines until the end of the war. A devastating bombing raid on Tokyo of 9—10 March was the deadliest conventional bombing raid in history. In May , Australian troops landed in Borneo , overrunning the oilfields there.

American naval and amphibious forces also moved towards Japan, taking Iwo Jima by March, and Okinawa by the end of June. On 11 July, Allied leaders met in Potsdam, Germany. They confirmed earlier agreements about Germany, [] and the American, British and Chinese governments reiterated the demand for unconditional surrender of Japan, specifically stating that "the alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction". The call for unconditional surrender was rejected by the Japanese government, which believed it would be capable of negotiating for more favourable surrender terms.

Between the two bombings, the Soviets, pursuant to the Yalta agreement, invaded Japanese-held Manchuria and quickly defeated the Kwantung Army , which was the largest Japanese fighting force. The Allies established occupation administrations in Austria and Germany. The former became a neutral state, non-aligned with any political bloc. The latter was divided into western and eastern occupation zones controlled by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.

A denazification programme in Germany led to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals in the Nuremberg trials and the removal of ex-Nazis from power, although this policy moved towards amnesty and re-integration of ex-Nazis into West German society. Germany lost a quarter of its pre-war territory. Among the eastern territories, Silesia , Neumark and most of Pomerania were taken over by Poland, [] and East Prussia was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union, followed by the expulsion to Germany of the nine million Germans from these provinces, [] [] as well as three million Germans from the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia.

By the s, one-fifth of West Germans were refugees from the east. The Soviet Union also took over the Polish provinces east of the Curzon line , [] from which 2 million Poles were expelled ; [] [] north-east Romania, [] [] parts of eastern Finland, [] and the three Baltic states were incorporated into the Soviet Union. In an effort to maintain world peace , [] the Allies formed the United Nations , which officially came into existence on 24 October , [] and adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in as a common standard for all member nations.

The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had begun to deteriorate even before the war was over. Germany had been de facto divided, and two independent states, the Federal Republic of Germany West Germany and the German Democratic Republic East Germany , [] were created within the borders of Allied and Soviet occupation zones.

The rest of Europe was also divided into Western and Soviet spheres of influence. Communist Yugoslavia conducted a fully independent policy , causing tension with the Soviet Union. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel in , each claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimately to the Korean War. In China, nationalist and communist forces resumed the civil war in June Communist forces were victorious and established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, while nationalist forces retreated to Taiwan in While European powers attempted to retain some or all of their colonial empires , their losses of prestige and resources during the war rendered this unsuccessful, leading to decolonisation.

The global economy suffered heavily from the war, although participating nations were affected differently. The United States emerged much richer than any other nation, leading to a baby boom , and by its gross domestic product per person was much higher than that of any of the other powers, and it dominated the world economy. At the Bretton Woods Conference in July , the Allied nations drew up an economic framework for the post-war world. The Bretton Woods system lasted until Estimates for the total number of casualties in the war vary, because many deaths went unrecorded.

The Soviet Union alone lost around 27 million people during the war, [] including 8. An estimated 11 [] to 17 million [] civilians died as a direct or as an indirect result of Hitler's racist policies , including mass killing of around 6 million Jews , along with Roma , homosexuals , at least 1. In Asia and the Pacific, between 3 million and more than 10 million civilians, mostly Chinese estimated at 7. General Yasuji Okamura implemented the policy in Heipei and Shantung.

Axis forces employed biological and chemical weapons. The Imperial Japanese Army used a variety of such weapons during its invasion and occupation of China see Unit [] [] and in early conflicts against the Soviets. The Soviet Union was responsible for the Katyn massacre of 22, Polish officers, [] and the imprisonment or execution of thousands of political prisoners by the NKVD , along with mass civilian deportations to Siberia , in the Baltic states and eastern Poland annexed by the Red Army.

The mass bombing of cities in Europe and Asia has often been called a war crime, although no positive or specific customary international humanitarian law with respect to aerial warfare existed before or during World War II. Nazi Germany , under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, was responsible for the Holocaust which killed approximately 6 million Jews as well as for killing 2. Nazi Germany extensively used forced labourers ; about 12 million Europeans from German-occupied countries were abducted and used as a slave work force in German industry, agriculture and war economy.

The Soviet Gulag became a de facto system of deadly camps during —43, when wartime privation and hunger caused numerous deaths of inmates, [] including foreign citizens of Poland and other countries occupied in —40 by the Soviet Union, as well as Axis POWs. Japanese prisoner-of-war camps , many of which were used as labour camps, also had high death rates.

After , the number reached 10 million. About , of these Javanese labourers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia, and only 52, were repatriated to Java. In Europe, occupation came under two forms. In Western, Northern, and Central Europe France, Norway, Denmark, the Low Countries, and the annexed portions of Czechoslovakia Germany established economic policies through which it collected roughly In the East, the intended gains of Lebensraum were never attained as fluctuating front-lines and Soviet scorched earth policies denied resources to the German invaders.

In Asia, Japan termed nations under its occupation as being part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere , essentially a Japanese hegemony which it claimed was for purposes of liberating colonised peoples. In Europe, before the outbreak of the war, the Allies had significant advantages in both population and economics. In , the Western Allies United Kingdom, France, Poland and the British Dominions had a 30 percent larger population and a 30 percent higher gross domestic product than the European Axis powers Germany and Italy ; if colonies are included, the Allies had more than a advantage in population and a nearly advantage in GDP.

The United States produced about two-thirds of all the munitions used by the Allies in World War II, including warships, transports, warplanes, artillery, tanks, trucks, and ammunition. Additionally, neither Germany nor Japan planned to fight a protracted war, and had not equipped themselves to do so.

Aircraft were used for reconnaissance , as fighters , bombers , and ground-support , and each role was advanced considerably. Innovation included airlift the capability to quickly move limited high-priority supplies, equipment, and personnel ; [] and of strategic bombing the bombing of enemy industrial and population centres to destroy the enemy's ability to wage war. The use of the jet aircraft was pioneered and, though late introduction meant it had little impact, it led to jets becoming standard in air forces worldwide.

Advances were made in nearly every aspect of naval warfare , most notably with aircraft carriers and submarines. Although aeronautical warfare had relatively little success at the start of the war, actions at Taranto , Pearl Harbor , and the Coral Sea established the carrier as the dominant capital ship in place of the battleship. The British focused development on anti-submarine weaponry and tactics, such as sonar and convoys, while Germany focused on improving its offensive capability, with designs such as the Type VII submarine and wolfpack tactics.

Land warfare changed from the static front lines of trench warfare of World War I, which had relied on improved artillery that outmatched the speed of both infantry and cavalry , to increased mobility and combined arms. The tank , which had been used predominantly for infantry support in the First World War, had evolved into the primary weapon. This, along with Germany's use of combined arms, were among the key elements of their highly successful blitzkrieg tactics across Poland and France.

Most major belligerents attempted to solve the problems of complexity and security involved in using large codebooks for cryptography by designing ciphering machines, the most well known being the German Enigma machine. Notable examples were the Allied decryption of Japanese naval codes [] and British Ultra , a pioneering method for decoding Enigma benefiting from information given to the United Kingdom by the Polish Cipher Bureau , which had been decoding early versions of Enigma before the war.

Other technological and engineering feats achieved during, or as a result of, the war include the world's first programmable computers Z3 , Colossus , and ENIAC , guided missiles and modern rockets , the Manhattan Project 's development of nuclear weapons , operations research and the development of artificial harbours and oil pipelines under the English Channel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Global war originating in Europe, — Not to be confused with WWW2. World War II.

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