Chanty

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Chanty is a work management solution that uses collaboration software to streamline coordination across teams and workflows. It caters to all. Chanty is a Team Communication software. Learn more about it's pricing, reviews, features, integrations and also get free demo. Save This Word! noun, plural chant·ies. a variant of shanty. QUIZ YOURSELF ON “ITS” VS. “IT'S”! Apostrophes can be tricky; prove you know the difference. CAMOUFLAGE SIMS 4 For multiple destination-only is one of. Use on the a problem with. Software Research View.

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Crew and passengers alike were noted to join in at heaving the capstan around. They were said to sing "old ditties", along with which a few verses to one or more songs is given. These songs do not appear to correspond to any shanty known from later eras. It is possible that the long, monotonous task of heaving the capstan had long inspired the singing of time-passing songs of various sorts, such as those in The Quid.

For example, the composition of capstan-style "sailor songs" by Norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland as early as [37] implies that Scandinavians also used such songs. However, these older songs can be distinguished from the later type of songs that were given the label shanty , suggesting there were other formative influences that gave birth to an appreciably new and distinctly recognized phenomenon.

Use of the term "shanty", once this paradigm for singing had become a comprehensive practice for most tasks, incorporated all manner of shipboard work songs under its definition, regardless of style and origin. On the other hand, the repertoire of the so-called "halyard shanties" coheres into a consistent form.

In the first few decades of the 19th century, European-American culture, especially the Anglophone—the sailors' "Cheer'ly Man" and some capstan songs notwithstanding—was not known for its work songs [ citation needed ]. By contrast, African workers, both in Africa and in the New World, were widely noted to sing while working.

According to Gibb Schreffler, an Assistant Professor of Music at Pomona College, European observers found African work-singers remarkable as Schreffler infers from tone of their descriptions. Schreffler further infers that that work songs may have been foreign to European culture [41] See, however, references to nautical work songs among European sailors appearing in such sources as The Tempest [42]. For example, an observer in Martinique in wrote, "The negroes have a different air and words for every kind of labour; sometimes they sing, and their motions, even while cultivating the ground, keep time to the music.

Thus while European sailors had learned to put short chants to use for certain kinds of labor, the paradigm of a comprehensive system of developed work songs for most tasks may have been contributed by the direct involvement of or through the imitation of African-Americans. During the first half of the 19th century, some of the songs African-Americans sang also began to appear in use for shipboard tasks, i.

An example of a work song that was shared between several contexts, including, eventually, sailors working, is " Grog Time o' Day". This song, the tune of which is now lost, was sung by: Jamaican stevedores at a capstan in ; [46] Afro-Caribbeans rowing a boat in Antigua ca. While the non-sailor occupations noted above were mainly within the purview of Black laborers, the last of them, cotton-screwing, was one in which non-Blacks also began to engage by the s.

These workers often came from the ranks of sailors of the trans-Atlantic cotton trade, including sailors from Britain and Ireland who, wanting to avoid the cold winter seasons on the Atlantic, went ashore to engage in the well-paid labor of cotton-screwing. The day after our arrival the crew formed themselves into two gangs and obtained employment at screwing cotton by the day With the aid of a set of jack-screws and a ditty, we would stow away huge bales of cotton, singing all the while.

The song enlivened the gang and seemed to make the work much easier. Shanty-writer Stan Hugill called Mobile Bay—one of the main cotton outports—a "shanty mart", at which sailors and laborers of different cultural backgrounds traded their songs. Commenters on the ethnic or national origins of shanties, writing in the 19th century when shanties were still in wide use, generally supposed the genre to originate in the United States and recognized parallels to African-American singing—as opposed to earlier English traditions from Britain.

Along the African coast you will hear that dirge-like strain in all their songs, as at work or paddling their canoes to and from shore, they keep time to the music. On the southern plantations you will hear it also, and in the negro melodies every where, plaintive and melodious, sad and earnest. It seems like the dirge of national degradation, the wail of a race, stricken and crushed, familiar with tyranny, submission and unrequited labor And here I cannot help noticing the similarity existing between the working chorus of the sailors and the dirge-like negro melody, to which my attention was specially directed by an incident I witnessed or rather heard.

The author went on to relate an incident in which he once heard "a well known strain of music", finding to his surprise that it was being sung by Black men rowing canoes. In much of the shanty repertoire known today one finds parallels to the minstrel songs that came to popularity from the s.

In an influential early article about shanties, New York journalist William L. Alden drew a comparison between shanties and both authentic African-American songs and the quasi-African-American minstrel songs:. The old sailor songs had a peculiar individuality. They were barbaric in their wild melody.

The only songs that in any way resemble them in character are " Dixie ", and two or three other so-called negro songs by the same writer. This man, known in the minstrel profession as " Old Emmett ", caught the true spirit of the African melodies—the lawless, half-mournful, half-exulting songs of the Kroomen. These and the sailor songs could never have been the songs of civilized men Undoubtedly many sailor songs have a negro origin. They are the reminiscences of melodies sung by negroes stowing cotton in the holds of ships in Southern ports.

The "shanty-men," those hards of the forecastle, have preserved to some extent the meaningless words of negro choruses, and have modified the melodies so as to fit them for salt-water purposes. Certain other songs were unmistakably the work of English sailors of an uncertain but very remote period. Alden was not writing as a research historian, but rather as an observer of the then-current shanty-singing. His, then, was an impression of shanties based on their style and manner of performance, and he was writing at a time when shanties had yet to become framed by writers and media as belonging to any canon of national "folk music".

An English author of the period, William Clark Russell , expressed his belief in several works that shanties were American in origin. I think it may be taken that we owe the sailors' working song as we now possess it to the Americans.

How far do these songs date back? I doubt if the most ancient amongst them is much older than the century. It is noteworthy that the old voyagers do not hint at the sailors singing out or encouraging their efforts by choruses when at work. In the navy, of course, this sort of song was never permitted. Work proceeded to the strains of a fiddle, to the piping of the boatswain and his mates, or in earlier times yet, to the trumpet.

The working song then is peculiar to the Merchant Service, but one may hunt through the old chronicles without encountering a suggestion of its existence prior to American independence and to the establishment of a Yankee marine. As time wore on and shanties were established as an indispensable tool aboard the ships of many nations carrying heterogeneous crew, inspiration from several national and cultural traditions fed into the repertoire and their style was subsequently shaped by countless individuals.

Writers have characterized the origin of shanties or perhaps a revival in shanties, as William Main Doerflinger theorized [2] as belonging to an era immediately following the War of and up to the American Civil War. Packet ships carried cargo and passengers on fixed schedules across the globe.

Packet ships were larger and yet sailed with fewer crew than vessels of earlier eras, in addition to the fact that they were expected on strict schedules. These requirements called for an efficient and disciplined use of human labor. American vessels, especially, gained reputations for cruelty as officers demanded high results from their crew.

The shanties of the 19th century could be characterized as a sort of new "technology" adopted by sailors to adapt to this way of shipboard life. Recent research has considered a wider range of 19th century sources than had been possible by 20th-century writers. The general silence of the historical record on modern shanties until as late as the s, [64] even as shipping shifted to the even faster clipper ships , suggests that they may not have come into widespread use until the middle of the century.

They received a boost from the heavy emigrant movement of gold rushes in California and Australia. By the time of the American Civil War, the shanty form was fully developed, after which its repertoire grew and its implementation was widespread and rather standardized. The decade of the s represents the zenith of the genre; those sailors who first went to sea after that decade are considered not to have seen shanties in their prime. The "shanty-man"—the chorister of the old packet ship—has left no successors.

In the place of a rousing "pulling song," we now hear the rattle of the steam-winch; and the modern windlass worked by steam, or the modern steam-pump, gives us the clatter of cogwheels and the hiss of steam in place of the wild choruses of other days. Singing and steam are irreconcilable. The hoarse steam-whistle is the nearest approach to music that can exist in the hot, greasy atmosphere of the steam-engine.

Other writers echoed Alden's lament through and after the s; the first collections of shanties appeared in that decade, [71] [72] [73] in one sense as a response to what the authors believed was a vanishing art. Shanties continued to be used to some extent so long as windjammers were, yet these were comparatively few in the early 20th century. Folklorists of the first decade of the 20th century, especially those from Britain, included shanties among their interests in collecting folk songs connected with the idea of national heritage.

Cecil Sharp and his colleagues among the English Folk-Song Society were among the first to take down the lyrics and tunes of shanties directly from the lips of veteran sailors and to publish them more or less faithfully. Most editors presented "ideal" versions of songs—not reflecting any one way the shanty may have been sung, but rather a composite picture, edited for print. Bowdlerization and omission of lyrics were typical.

Editors customarily published fanciful, often nostalgic introductions to the material that included unsubstantiated statements. As a result, though much of the vanishing shanty repertoire was preserved in skeletal form, aspects of the genre were re-envisioned according to contemporary perceptions. These early 20th century collectors' choices of what to include, what to exclude, and how to frame the repertoire all had an effect on how following generations have viewed the genre.

Because sailors who had sung shanties were by this time very old or dead, and the general public had little opportunity to experience performances of shanties, the representations by these authors were all the more influential in mediating information and creating the impression of "standard" versions of songs. The English poet John Masefield , following in the footsteps of peers like Rudyard Kipling , [78] seized upon shanties as a nostalgic literary device, and included them along with much older, non-shanty sea songs in his collection A Sailor's Garland.

For example, he admits to never having heard a pumping shanty, [80] and yet he goes on to present one without citing its source. In one of his earlier articles, [81] his shanties are set to melodies taken verbatim from Davis and Tozer's earlier work, and he mentions having utilized that and the other widely available collection L. Smith, as resources. Masefield desired to connect shanties with much older English traditions and literature, and his characterization of individual items as such would prove attractive to later enthusiasts.

The collection by Frank Thomas Bullen , Songs of Sea Labour , [84] differed from the work of writers such as Masefield in having a more practical, rather than romantic, tone. Bullen, an Englishman, was an experienced shantyman, who sailed during the heyday of shanties to ports in the Southern U. Pressure of his publisher forced him to include two sea songs, clearly demarcated, at the end of the book. As for his framing of the genre's origins, Bullen stated his belief that, "[T]he great majority of these tunes undoubtably emanated from the negroes of the Antilles and the Southern states, a most tuneful race if ever there was one, men moreover who seemed unable to pick up a ropeyarn without a song The effect of including only the most exclusively work-oriented songs meant that a higher percentage of African-American songs were represented.

Somewhere between these perspectives was Cecil Sharp 's, whose English Folk-Chanteys was published in the same year, and was based on shanties he collected from aged English sailors in Britain. The title of Sharp's work reflects his project of collecting and grouping shanties as part of what he conceived to be a rather continuous English folk song tradition. Sharp states in the introduction that he deliberately excluded shanties which were obviously i.

However, Sharp believed that by eliminating such shanties based on popular songs, he could concentrate those that were "folk" songs. Of his own admission, Sharp lacked any shantying or sea experience to intuitively judge shanties like someone such as Bullen, however he offers his objectivity, recording precisely what was sung to him, as consolation. By the s, the proliferation of shanty collections had begun to facilitate a revival in shanty singing as entertainment for laypersons see below , which in turn created a market for more shanty collections that were geared towards a general audience.

Writers of the s, 30s, and 40s, through their derivative, popular works, established in effect a new body of "common knowledge" about shanties that overwrote some of the knowledge of 19th century observers. Shanty collection was seen as a facet of the early twentieth century folk revival. The Australian-born composer and folklorist Percy Grainger collected various shanties and recorded them on wax cylinders in the early s, and the recordings are available online courtesy of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library.

In the s, while the proliferation of soft-scholarly books was reifying the shanty repertoire, a few American scholars were audio-recording some of the last surviving sailors that had sung shanties as part of their daily work. James Madison Carpenter , made hundreds of recordings of shanties from singers in Britain, Ireland , and the north-eastern U.

Similarly, Alan Lomax 's work starting in the s, especially his field recordings of work songs in the Caribbean and Southern U. One of the most celebrated volumes on shanties produced in the 20th century is Stan Hugill's Shanties from the Seven Seas With respect to methodology, Hugill aimed to be as inclusive as possible—to account for and to present, if sometimes only in fragments, any and all items of shanty repertoire that he was currently able to find.

Any song that he had heard or read being attested as having been ever "used as shanty" was included—regardless of whether that song was not generally known as a shanty or if its use as a shanty was rare and incidental. The result is a varied portrait of the genre, highlighting its maximum diversity without, however, giving a focused sense of what songs were most common during the heyday of shanties or in latter eras.

Hugill readily included more recently popular songs—those that evidently were not sung until after the shanty genre was experiencing decline, but which were extant when Hugill sailed s—40s. He also culled from the major collections of non-English-language sailor work songs. Hugill's practice of liberally culling from all major prior works, in combination with original material from his own field experiences, makes it a handy sourcebook for performers, but a difficult work to assess in terms of historical accuracy.

With respect to chronological position, while Hugill is affectionately known as "The Last Shantyman," he was also one of the last original shanty collectors. To a great extent, Shanties from the Seven Seas is considered the "last word" on shanties and the first stop as a reference. In contrast to many of the academic folklorists who had collected shanties before him, Hugill possessed the look and pedigree of an old-time sailor, and he was actually able to perform the songs from his collection at sea music festivals.

Even as shanty singing to accompany work aboard ships was "dying," interest was being taken in "reviving" it—as a type of leisure pastime. Most shanty singing since the midth century or earlier is considered to be in such a "revival" vein. A few of the editors of early shanty collections provided arrangements for pianoforte accompaniment with their shanties.

While this may have simply been a customary way of presenting songs or attempting to frame their tonality, it may also suggest they hoped their examples could be performed, as well. One of the earliest shanty collections, Davis and Tozer's Sailor Songs or 'Chanties' which circulated in the early s , included such accompaniment, along with safe, "drawing room" style lyrics.

It is unknown whether any actual performances were based on this otherwise influential work, however, the proceedings from a meeting of the Manchester Literary Club, 4 February , record an instance of laypersons attempting to recreate shanty performance at that early date. Independent of this literature, a revival of sorts was staged by the U.

Shipping Board in when Stanton H. A description of the daily training schedule included the following note:. Recreation includes singing, for each ship is supplied with a piano. The musical program includes old-time chanties, in which the young men are instructed by a veteran deep-water chantie man. An on-shore revival in shanty singing for leisure was facilitated by song collections of the s, especially Terry's The Shanty Book in two volumes, and Collections prior to Terry's except for Davis and Tozer's much earlier and contrived-sounding settings had not provided enough verses to create "full" songs, and it is unlikely that performers would venture to improvise new verses in the manner of traditional shantymen.

By , it had become a custom at the Seven Seas Club in London to hold a shanty sing-along after the club's monthly dinners. Shanties like "Johnny Come Down to Hilo" were more or less standardized through popular dissemination. The next revival in shanties occurred as part of the Anglophone folk music revival of the midth century.

Lloyd starting in the s. An amateur folklorist, Lloyd discarded the earlier classical style of presentations in favor of a more "authentic" performance style. He was generally mysterious about the sources of his shanty arrangements; he obviously referred to collections by editors like Sharp, Colcord, and Doerflinger, however it is often unclear when and whether his versions were based in field experience or his private invention.

Lloyd's album The Singing Sailor [] with Ewan MacColl was an early milestone, which made an impression on Stan Hugill when he was preparing his collection, [] particularly as the performance style it embodied was considered more appropriate than that of earlier commercial recordings. Many other performers followed, creating influential versions and interpretations of shanties that persist today.

For example, Lloyd's personal interpretation of " South Australia " was taken up by the Irish folk revival group The Clancy Brothers , from which this version spread to countless folk performers to become established as the "standard" form of what is usually presented as a "traditional" shanty.

Through the mass distribution of particular shanty forms through recordings and clubs, the folk revival has had the effect of creating an impression of rather consistent forms of texts and tunes—a sharp contrast to the highly variable and often improvised nature of work-based shanty singing. Another effect, due to the fact that most folk performers sang shanties along with other genres, is that shanty repertoire was ever more incorporated within the generic fold of "folk song," and their distinctive use, manner of performance, and identity were co-opted.

With one foot firmly planted in the world of traditional shanties, the veteran sailor and author Stan Hugill also became a leader and follower of trends in the folk music revival. In the days when human muscles were the only power source available aboard ship, shanties served practical functions. The rhythm of the song served to synchronize the movements of the sailors or to pace the labor as they toiled at repetitive tasks.

Singing helped to alleviate boredom and to lighten, perhaps, the psychological burden of hard work. Shanties may also be said to have served a social purpose, as to build camaraderie. All shanties had a chorus of some sort, in order to allow the crew to sing all together. Many shanties had a " call and response " format, with one voice the shantyman singing the solo lines and the rest of the sailors bellowing short refrains in response compare military cadence calls.

The shantyman was a regular sailor who led the others in singing. He was usually self-appointed. Nevertheless, sailors reputed to be good shantymen were valued and respected. The following example, a verse of the shanty "Boney" in reference to Napoleon , shows the call and response form and the interplay between the voices of the shantyman and the crew. When working this as a short-drag shanty see below , hands on the line would synchronize their pulls with the last syllable of each response in italics.

The practical function of shanties as work songs was given priority over their lyrics or the musicality of a performance. Due to this, shanty texts might have been poor from an aesthetic standpoint—even at times random nonsense—so long as the singing fit the form of the work song.

One writer about shanties warned his readers that their lyrics, to landsmen, would "probably appear as the veriest doggerel. As a rule, the chantey in its entirety possesses neither rhyme nor reason; nevertheless, it is admirably fitted for sailors' work. Each of these sea-songs has a few stock verses or phrases to begin with, but after these are sung, the soloist must improvise, and it is principally his skill in this direction that marks the successful chantey-man.

Improvisation and stock verses were the tools of the trade of shantymen. Similar to the blues , shanties often exhibited a string of such verses without much explicit or continuous theme. While on one hand this may simply reflect the aesthetic of the music-culture from which the form originated, this, too, was a feature suited to practical restrictions. Work tasks might be of any length and often unpredictable. Songs with a fixed set of verses, or ballads, which tell a story, were not so well suited to tasks that could end abruptly at any time or that might require extending.

Improvising of lyrics in such a context could be seen as an African-American musical characteristic , as Euro-American observers of Black work-singing consistently remarked on its extempore nature. Up aloft this yard must go. Were you ever down in Mobile Bay? The refrain in these cases may be any; that is, the stock verses may be fitted to any of a number of shanties having a similar tune-chorus form. Many stock verses used phrases that "floated" between both minstrel and authentic African-American traditional songs.

For example, the phrase "girl with the blue dress on" is documented in a Black muledriver's song [] and in a popular minstrel song, [] as well as in a few shanties, for example,. As evident from the last lyric, above, shanty lyrics were not limited to seafaring or work topics. Drawing lyrics and sometimes entire songs from the popular and traditional repertoires of the time meant that a wide range of themes were represented.

Shanties reflect a variety of source material. As discussed above, there is a notable correspondence between shanties and African-American songs of both work and leisure. Popular music of the time was readily adapted, especially the minstrel music genre, songs of whose couplets were often of a suitable metrical length.

However, shantymen more often adapted lyrics and themes from ballads and "spliced" them to existing shanty melodies and choruses. Other shanties were adapted from land-based traditional songs , for example " Billy Boy " and " The Derby Ram. They required a coordinated show of focused exertion, not sustained, but rather at specific moments. Shanties for hauling tasks thus coordinated the timing of those exertions, the "pulls. In these, coordination was of minor importance as compared to pacing.

Rather than rhythmically timing the labor, shanties for heaving were more intended to set an appropriate, manageable pace and to occupy or inspire workers throughout the duration of what could often be long tasks.

On vessels of war, the drum and fife or boatswain's whistle furnish the necessary movement regulator. There, where the strength of one or two hundred men can be applied to one and the same effort, the labor is not intermittent, but continuous. The men form on either side of the rope to be hauled, and walk away with it like firemen marching with their engine.

When the headmost pair bring up at the stern or bow, they part, and the two streams flow back to the starting-point, outside the following files. Thus in this perpetual "follow-my-leader" way the work is done, with more precision and steadiness than in the merchant-service. The above categories, with respect to the repertoire they contain, are not absolute. Sailors often took a song from one category and, with necessary alterations to the rhythm, tempo , or form, used it for a different task.

This can be seen in the frequent lack of consensus, among different writers and informants, as to what job a given shanty was used for. Shanties are work songs and were originally sung only for work. However, sailors also sang for pleasure in the fo'c's'le forecastle where they slept or, in fine weather, gathered near the fore bitts large posts on the foredeck. While songs with maritime themes were sung, all manner of popular songs and ballads on any subject might be sung off watch.

The leisure songs associated with sailors are labeled simply as "sea songs," but they have no consistent formal characteristics. They are also popularly known among enthusiasts, especially when distinguishing them from shanties, as fo'c's'le songs or forebitters. Although those terms were not in great evidence in the 19th century, some literary references to "fore-bitter" and, less so, "fo'c'sle song," attest to their use even prior to the appearance of "shanty.

While the crews of merchant ships in which shanties were sung might have come from a wide variety of national and ethnic backgrounds and might have spoken various mother-tongues, the shanty genre was by and large an English-language phenomenon. However, non-English-language sailor work songs were also developed. They are generally of these types:. There are notable bodies of shanty repertoire in Swedish , Norwegian , Dutch , French , Breton , and Welsh , and shanties have been translated into Polish and German.

The terms for shanties in these languages do not always precisely correlate with English usage. In French, chant de marin or "sailor's song" is a broad category that includes both work and leisure songs. The equivalents in German are Seemannslied and, again, shanty. A shanty in Polish is szanta. Substantial collections of non-English shanties include the following, which have been instrumental in forming the modern day sailor song repertoires of revival performers in their respective languages:.

Historically, shanties were usually not sung outside of work contexts, and singing sea songs was generally the purview of sailors. However, since their revival as leisure songs among laypersons they have been performed in a variety of contexts. Similarly to Euro-American folk music, shanties and sea songs are performed both informally by amateurs and as commercial entertainment by professionals, with many performers straddling both contexts.

Some performers focus on shanties, sea songs, and related material, as part of the genre of maritime music, whereas in other cases performers of popular music including the Folk genre and classical music bring songs from the shanty repertoire into their own. Devoted performances of shanties display certain customs and general trends in different areas.

However, the genre is an international one; practices vary freely and are not limited to the following generalizations. In North America, as of [update] enthusiasts could gather at regularly scheduled, open singing sessions, for example the "chantey sings" held monthly aboard the ship Balclutha in San Francisco, [] weekly in Gloucester , Massachusetts, [] At these sessions, any participant is free to start up and lead a shanty, which the rest of those present—sometimes over one hundred or more participants—join on the choruses.

The gatherings aim for an inclusive atmosphere that welcomes people of all ages, genders, ethnicities, and singing abilities. Go from typing messages to making a video call with the click of a button. Bring 4k video and audio to your meetings with support for up to video participants and 49 videos on screen. Create new tasks from scratch or turn any message into a task to enjoy a smarter collaboration with your deadline-driven team. Discuss takes you to a task-related conversation, creating a workflow around the particular task.

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Sharp states in the introduction that he deliberately excluded shanties which were obviously i. However, Sharp believed that by eliminating such shanties based on popular songs, he could concentrate those that were "folk" songs. Of his own admission, Sharp lacked any shantying or sea experience to intuitively judge shanties like someone such as Bullen, however he offers his objectivity, recording precisely what was sung to him, as consolation.

By the s, the proliferation of shanty collections had begun to facilitate a revival in shanty singing as entertainment for laypersons see below , which in turn created a market for more shanty collections that were geared towards a general audience. Writers of the s, 30s, and 40s, through their derivative, popular works, established in effect a new body of "common knowledge" about shanties that overwrote some of the knowledge of 19th century observers.

Shanty collection was seen as a facet of the early twentieth century folk revival. The Australian-born composer and folklorist Percy Grainger collected various shanties and recorded them on wax cylinders in the early s, and the recordings are available online courtesy of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. In the s, while the proliferation of soft-scholarly books was reifying the shanty repertoire, a few American scholars were audio-recording some of the last surviving sailors that had sung shanties as part of their daily work.

James Madison Carpenter , made hundreds of recordings of shanties from singers in Britain, Ireland , and the north-eastern U. Similarly, Alan Lomax 's work starting in the s, especially his field recordings of work songs in the Caribbean and Southern U. One of the most celebrated volumes on shanties produced in the 20th century is Stan Hugill's Shanties from the Seven Seas With respect to methodology, Hugill aimed to be as inclusive as possible—to account for and to present, if sometimes only in fragments, any and all items of shanty repertoire that he was currently able to find.

Any song that he had heard or read being attested as having been ever "used as shanty" was included—regardless of whether that song was not generally known as a shanty or if its use as a shanty was rare and incidental. The result is a varied portrait of the genre, highlighting its maximum diversity without, however, giving a focused sense of what songs were most common during the heyday of shanties or in latter eras.

Hugill readily included more recently popular songs—those that evidently were not sung until after the shanty genre was experiencing decline, but which were extant when Hugill sailed s—40s. He also culled from the major collections of non-English-language sailor work songs. Hugill's practice of liberally culling from all major prior works, in combination with original material from his own field experiences, makes it a handy sourcebook for performers, but a difficult work to assess in terms of historical accuracy.

With respect to chronological position, while Hugill is affectionately known as "The Last Shantyman," he was also one of the last original shanty collectors. To a great extent, Shanties from the Seven Seas is considered the "last word" on shanties and the first stop as a reference.

In contrast to many of the academic folklorists who had collected shanties before him, Hugill possessed the look and pedigree of an old-time sailor, and he was actually able to perform the songs from his collection at sea music festivals. Even as shanty singing to accompany work aboard ships was "dying," interest was being taken in "reviving" it—as a type of leisure pastime.

Most shanty singing since the midth century or earlier is considered to be in such a "revival" vein. A few of the editors of early shanty collections provided arrangements for pianoforte accompaniment with their shanties. While this may have simply been a customary way of presenting songs or attempting to frame their tonality, it may also suggest they hoped their examples could be performed, as well.

One of the earliest shanty collections, Davis and Tozer's Sailor Songs or 'Chanties' which circulated in the early s , included such accompaniment, along with safe, "drawing room" style lyrics. It is unknown whether any actual performances were based on this otherwise influential work, however, the proceedings from a meeting of the Manchester Literary Club, 4 February , record an instance of laypersons attempting to recreate shanty performance at that early date.

Independent of this literature, a revival of sorts was staged by the U. Shipping Board in when Stanton H. A description of the daily training schedule included the following note:. Recreation includes singing, for each ship is supplied with a piano. The musical program includes old-time chanties, in which the young men are instructed by a veteran deep-water chantie man. An on-shore revival in shanty singing for leisure was facilitated by song collections of the s, especially Terry's The Shanty Book in two volumes, and Collections prior to Terry's except for Davis and Tozer's much earlier and contrived-sounding settings had not provided enough verses to create "full" songs, and it is unlikely that performers would venture to improvise new verses in the manner of traditional shantymen.

By , it had become a custom at the Seven Seas Club in London to hold a shanty sing-along after the club's monthly dinners. Shanties like "Johnny Come Down to Hilo" were more or less standardized through popular dissemination. The next revival in shanties occurred as part of the Anglophone folk music revival of the midth century.

Lloyd starting in the s. An amateur folklorist, Lloyd discarded the earlier classical style of presentations in favor of a more "authentic" performance style. He was generally mysterious about the sources of his shanty arrangements; he obviously referred to collections by editors like Sharp, Colcord, and Doerflinger, however it is often unclear when and whether his versions were based in field experience or his private invention.

Lloyd's album The Singing Sailor [] with Ewan MacColl was an early milestone, which made an impression on Stan Hugill when he was preparing his collection, [] particularly as the performance style it embodied was considered more appropriate than that of earlier commercial recordings. Many other performers followed, creating influential versions and interpretations of shanties that persist today. For example, Lloyd's personal interpretation of " South Australia " was taken up by the Irish folk revival group The Clancy Brothers , from which this version spread to countless folk performers to become established as the "standard" form of what is usually presented as a "traditional" shanty.

Through the mass distribution of particular shanty forms through recordings and clubs, the folk revival has had the effect of creating an impression of rather consistent forms of texts and tunes—a sharp contrast to the highly variable and often improvised nature of work-based shanty singing. Another effect, due to the fact that most folk performers sang shanties along with other genres, is that shanty repertoire was ever more incorporated within the generic fold of "folk song," and their distinctive use, manner of performance, and identity were co-opted.

With one foot firmly planted in the world of traditional shanties, the veteran sailor and author Stan Hugill also became a leader and follower of trends in the folk music revival. In the days when human muscles were the only power source available aboard ship, shanties served practical functions.

The rhythm of the song served to synchronize the movements of the sailors or to pace the labor as they toiled at repetitive tasks. Singing helped to alleviate boredom and to lighten, perhaps, the psychological burden of hard work. Shanties may also be said to have served a social purpose, as to build camaraderie. All shanties had a chorus of some sort, in order to allow the crew to sing all together.

Many shanties had a " call and response " format, with one voice the shantyman singing the solo lines and the rest of the sailors bellowing short refrains in response compare military cadence calls. The shantyman was a regular sailor who led the others in singing. He was usually self-appointed. Nevertheless, sailors reputed to be good shantymen were valued and respected.

The following example, a verse of the shanty "Boney" in reference to Napoleon , shows the call and response form and the interplay between the voices of the shantyman and the crew. When working this as a short-drag shanty see below , hands on the line would synchronize their pulls with the last syllable of each response in italics. The practical function of shanties as work songs was given priority over their lyrics or the musicality of a performance.

Due to this, shanty texts might have been poor from an aesthetic standpoint—even at times random nonsense—so long as the singing fit the form of the work song. One writer about shanties warned his readers that their lyrics, to landsmen, would "probably appear as the veriest doggerel. As a rule, the chantey in its entirety possesses neither rhyme nor reason; nevertheless, it is admirably fitted for sailors' work.

Each of these sea-songs has a few stock verses or phrases to begin with, but after these are sung, the soloist must improvise, and it is principally his skill in this direction that marks the successful chantey-man.

Improvisation and stock verses were the tools of the trade of shantymen. Similar to the blues , shanties often exhibited a string of such verses without much explicit or continuous theme. While on one hand this may simply reflect the aesthetic of the music-culture from which the form originated, this, too, was a feature suited to practical restrictions. Work tasks might be of any length and often unpredictable.

Songs with a fixed set of verses, or ballads, which tell a story, were not so well suited to tasks that could end abruptly at any time or that might require extending. Improvising of lyrics in such a context could be seen as an African-American musical characteristic , as Euro-American observers of Black work-singing consistently remarked on its extempore nature. Up aloft this yard must go.

Were you ever down in Mobile Bay? The refrain in these cases may be any; that is, the stock verses may be fitted to any of a number of shanties having a similar tune-chorus form. Many stock verses used phrases that "floated" between both minstrel and authentic African-American traditional songs.

For example, the phrase "girl with the blue dress on" is documented in a Black muledriver's song [] and in a popular minstrel song, [] as well as in a few shanties, for example,. As evident from the last lyric, above, shanty lyrics were not limited to seafaring or work topics. Drawing lyrics and sometimes entire songs from the popular and traditional repertoires of the time meant that a wide range of themes were represented. Shanties reflect a variety of source material. As discussed above, there is a notable correspondence between shanties and African-American songs of both work and leisure.

Popular music of the time was readily adapted, especially the minstrel music genre, songs of whose couplets were often of a suitable metrical length. However, shantymen more often adapted lyrics and themes from ballads and "spliced" them to existing shanty melodies and choruses. Other shanties were adapted from land-based traditional songs , for example " Billy Boy " and " The Derby Ram.

They required a coordinated show of focused exertion, not sustained, but rather at specific moments. Shanties for hauling tasks thus coordinated the timing of those exertions, the "pulls. In these, coordination was of minor importance as compared to pacing. Rather than rhythmically timing the labor, shanties for heaving were more intended to set an appropriate, manageable pace and to occupy or inspire workers throughout the duration of what could often be long tasks.

On vessels of war, the drum and fife or boatswain's whistle furnish the necessary movement regulator. There, where the strength of one or two hundred men can be applied to one and the same effort, the labor is not intermittent, but continuous. The men form on either side of the rope to be hauled, and walk away with it like firemen marching with their engine.

When the headmost pair bring up at the stern or bow, they part, and the two streams flow back to the starting-point, outside the following files. Thus in this perpetual "follow-my-leader" way the work is done, with more precision and steadiness than in the merchant-service. The above categories, with respect to the repertoire they contain, are not absolute. Sailors often took a song from one category and, with necessary alterations to the rhythm, tempo , or form, used it for a different task.

This can be seen in the frequent lack of consensus, among different writers and informants, as to what job a given shanty was used for. Shanties are work songs and were originally sung only for work. However, sailors also sang for pleasure in the fo'c's'le forecastle where they slept or, in fine weather, gathered near the fore bitts large posts on the foredeck.

While songs with maritime themes were sung, all manner of popular songs and ballads on any subject might be sung off watch. The leisure songs associated with sailors are labeled simply as "sea songs," but they have no consistent formal characteristics. They are also popularly known among enthusiasts, especially when distinguishing them from shanties, as fo'c's'le songs or forebitters. Although those terms were not in great evidence in the 19th century, some literary references to "fore-bitter" and, less so, "fo'c'sle song," attest to their use even prior to the appearance of "shanty.

While the crews of merchant ships in which shanties were sung might have come from a wide variety of national and ethnic backgrounds and might have spoken various mother-tongues, the shanty genre was by and large an English-language phenomenon. However, non-English-language sailor work songs were also developed. They are generally of these types:. There are notable bodies of shanty repertoire in Swedish , Norwegian , Dutch , French , Breton , and Welsh , and shanties have been translated into Polish and German.

The terms for shanties in these languages do not always precisely correlate with English usage. In French, chant de marin or "sailor's song" is a broad category that includes both work and leisure songs. The equivalents in German are Seemannslied and, again, shanty. A shanty in Polish is szanta. Substantial collections of non-English shanties include the following, which have been instrumental in forming the modern day sailor song repertoires of revival performers in their respective languages:.

Historically, shanties were usually not sung outside of work contexts, and singing sea songs was generally the purview of sailors. However, since their revival as leisure songs among laypersons they have been performed in a variety of contexts. Similarly to Euro-American folk music, shanties and sea songs are performed both informally by amateurs and as commercial entertainment by professionals, with many performers straddling both contexts.

Some performers focus on shanties, sea songs, and related material, as part of the genre of maritime music, whereas in other cases performers of popular music including the Folk genre and classical music bring songs from the shanty repertoire into their own. Devoted performances of shanties display certain customs and general trends in different areas.

However, the genre is an international one; practices vary freely and are not limited to the following generalizations. In North America, as of [update] enthusiasts could gather at regularly scheduled, open singing sessions, for example the "chantey sings" held monthly aboard the ship Balclutha in San Francisco, [] weekly in Gloucester , Massachusetts, [] At these sessions, any participant is free to start up and lead a shanty, which the rest of those present—sometimes over one hundred or more participants—join on the choruses.

The gatherings aim for an inclusive atmosphere that welcomes people of all ages, genders, ethnicities, and singing abilities. North American professionals often perform solo or in very small groups, frequently using instruments.

In the UK, shanties find a venue in pubs that host "folk clubs. They are frequently identified with a specific port town to which they belong. Many annual maritime festivals in Britain and across the Channel provide contexts for performance. Shanty choir s German Shantychor , Dutch shantykoor are choral groups — often with many members — that perform only sailor songs. They are especially popular in the Netherlands , Germany , and Norway.

Polish performers of shanties favor medium-sized groups, often singing in harmony, accompanying themselves on instruments, and presenting themselves similarly to the way a rock band would. Anker said regarding Mental Health "We've had guys in the group say this is the only place where they feel comfortable in that no one judges them. We often face and perform to each other instead of the audience.

It's a brotherhood. When you start singing sea shanties, it just grabs you and draws you in. You can't stop listening to and singing them. Items from the shanty and sea song repertoire have been brought into the repertoires of performers of folk music , rock , and Western classical music. Sources for these renditions include books by folklorists and commercial recordings by shanty revival performers.

The forms these performers produce tend to be quite standardized and relate to their source material similar to the way a cover song does. This can be contrasted with the method of performers focusing on maritime music, who tend to think of themselves as operating within that genre or a tradition, and who develop their repertoire from multiple sources and through various experiences. The folk revival movement is one in which shanties themselves were often revived, especially as they have been viewed as a branch of heritage traditional songs of Anglophone culture.

Several of the early performers in the Folk genre performed and recorded a significant number of sailor songs. Since at least the s, certain shanties have become staples of the Folk genre. Borrowings into Rock music have often resulted from the fluid borders between Folk and Rock performers and audiences.

For example, Bruce Springsteen 's " Pay Me My Money Down " derives from the interpretation by the Folk group The Weavers , who in turn found it among the collected shanties once traditionally performed by residents of the Georgia Sea Islands. Some Rock performers, too, have been inspired to adopt shanties as part of what they perceive to be a connection to their regional or national heritage.

Others have been fascinated by "sea" themes, including "pirates" and the perceived freedom, wildness, or debauchery of sailor culture. Classical composers have used shanties and sea songs or their melodies in their works. The Australian composer Percy Grainger is a notable case. Shanty performances today reflect a range of musical approaches and tastes. The purpose and parameters of shanty singing in the present era have had an influence on which shanties are sung and how.

Performers who favor a "traditional" style do not necessarily believe they are replicating the exact style of shanty singing of the 19th century. However, within the constraints of modern contexts, they tend to adhere to certain stylistic traits that are believed to have characterized the genre historically. These may include a loud or full voice, an emphatic, strident—even harsh—tone as if to carry over the noise of wind and waves , and tempos and rhythms that are reasonably conducive to working.

They often perform a capella or only with light instrumentation typical of sailors e. In general, performances may be more "rough around the edges" and be of variable length to accommodate impromptu changes in verses. A great many of the performers of shanties do so in what might be distinguished as a "folk music" style. They tend to be more interested in the songs themselves and less in the "shanty style" of performance, in favor of music that may be considered more pleasant, less rough, and with more variation and interest than traditional shanties offer.

Stylistic characteristics include lighter vocals with a "folk" timbre, livelier tempos, and instrumental interludes between verses. Invariably these performers choose to accompany themselves on instruments such as guitar and banjo. Their rhythms may be syncopated and quite different from work song rhythms, relying on the instruments to keep time rather than the voice.

Still other performers come to shanties from backgrounds in pop, rock, or theatrical music, and perform in what may be called a "contemporary" style. Some of the preferred characteristics are smooth, pop-style vocal timbre, carefully worked out harmony, and engaging rhythms. Less commonly—though it was the case with their earliest commercial recordings—shanties are performed in a "classical" choir style.

Appearances of shanties, or songs and melodies labeled as "shanties," in popular media can be anachronistic and fanciful. In accord with popular perception of shanties as a genre many hundreds of years old, songs with documented existence to only the midth century, at the earliest, have been freely used to portray scenes from the 18th century and earlier.

By imagining modern shanties to have been in use during such eras as the Golden Age of Piracy and the Napoleonic Wars , anachronistic associations have been formed between shanties and " pirates " or the Royal Navy. Evidence for all these uses and associations can be found in the examples that follow in this section. Shanties, and short videos of them being sung, saw a spike in popularity in late into early mainly due to a trend on TikTok. Much of the available historical information on shanties comes from travelogue literature, most of it of scarcely notable popularity, but some of it reaching a wide audience, such as Dana's Two Years Before the Mast I soon got used to this singing; for the sailors never touched a rope without it.

Sometimes, when no one happened to strike up, and the pulling, whatever it might be, did not seem to be getting forward very well, the mate would always say, "Come, men, can't any of you sing? Sing now, and raise the dead. It is a great thing in a sailor to know how to sing well, for he gets a great name by it from the officers, and a good deal of popularity among his shipmates.

Some sea-captains, before shipping a man, always ask him whether he can sing out at a rope. The shanty genre was unfamiliar to much of the lay public until it was publicized in the s, however, so most of the popular references in fiction do not begin until that decade. A well-known early example, though not strictly speaking a reference to a shanty, is the song " Fifteen men on the dead man's chest ", which was invented by Robert Louis Stevenson for his novel Treasure Island While shanties were historically understood as work songs, the word "shanty" has often been used in popular culture since the midth century as a catch-all term that also includes songs supposed to have been sung during leisure time at sea, and even other songs about the sea or which vaguely inspire thoughts of the sea.

Much of the historical shanty repertoire, being by definition designed to suit work, is less attractive as entertainment listening. The musical forms were highly repetitive, and the lyrics were quite often doggerel without any cohesive or preconceived composition. For these reasons, sea songs that were never or only exceptionally adapted as shanties—but which have engaging melodies and texts—have proved popular to 20th century audiences under the rubric of "shanties. Music performers with no strong links to maritime music have interpreted traditional shanty and sea song compositions, of which widely scattered instances abound.

For example, the bawdy sea song " Frigging in the Rigging " was recorded by the punk band Sex Pistols. Perhaps under the influence of Irish folk revival groups like The Clancy Brothers and The Dubliners , who included some shanties in their repertoires, some association has also been formed between shanties and Irish music. And so, looking back to these performers, later Irish-oriented rock groups like The Pogues interpreted traditional shanties and sea songs like "South Australia" and "The Greenland Whale Fisheries.

In , sea shanties such as " Soon May the Wellerman Come " became viral on TikTok following a rendition of the song made by Scotland -based postman Nathan Evans , prompting further arrangements building off the original. The musical style of shanties has also inspired new musical compositions, ranging from those designed to imitate 19th century song-style to those merely intended to evoke seafaring culture through evocative phrases and token musical features.

For example, the Stan Rogers song, " Barrett's Privateers ", being sung in a traditional style and having lyrics that relate an anecdote of maritime history, makes a convincing sea ballad and has been adopted into the repertoire of maritime music performers. English composer Michael Maybrick alias Stephen Adams sold a hundred thousand copies of an song Nancy Lee in Seafaring style, with lyrics by Frederick Weatherly concerning an archetypal sailors wife. Songs from the shanty repertoire have appeared in motion pictures.

These most often are not portrayed in an appropriate work context and sometimes not even a shipboard context, and many times they can be classed as anachronisms that serve to bring color and interest to the drama. The following is a sample list of notable films to have included traditional shanty repertoire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rhythmical work song sung on sailing vessels. For other uses, see Sea shanty disambiguation.

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Stan Hugill. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Roll and Go. Heath Cranton. Library of Congress. Cadell Strange pp. Tonsberg Forlag Hay Mielke p. Edward A. Rice, J. Chanty respects your privacy and helps you understand your rights according to the General Data Protection Regulation, which took effect on May 25, Web connections to all Chanty services are via TLS 1. For larger businesses or those seeking advanced administration tools.

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